Aquatic feed production process 4 poi

LIMA Fish Feed Machine,Chicken Feed Machine

Foreword Aquaculture is the fastest growing food industry in the world. According to the 1998 FAO (FAO), the People’s Republic of China is the world’s largest aquatic product country (Table 1). To make aquatic animals grow faster, we must first understand its nutritional needs, and understand the feed production technology. Of course, genetics, physiology, biochemistry and farming technology are also very important. Aquatic feed plus technology has progressed rapidly in the past 20 years, and for example, aquatic feed production is almost completely converted from steam granules to extrusion. One of the pluralities of extrusion is to make a floating feed, so that farmers can estimate how much fish eat according to the amount of feed remaining in the water. Excessive feeding will not only cause waste, increase production costs, but also pollute the environment. Although the extrusion will reduce the utilization of some nutrie in the feed, it is still the first choice for the farm. The farmer can see the fish’s feeding situation, you can better feed, master the fish. This paper describes the production process of aquatic feed, and proposes some suggestions. Source: United Nations FAO (FAO) 1 Aquatic Feed Factory Design Figure 1 is a flow chart of a full range of aquatic feed processing plant (Enterline, 1994). Feed feedstocks are stored in a crushing shop silo or raw material warehouse through the receiving system. Feed raw materials can be pulverized separately, and then batch bubbles with vitamin premix, mineral premix, feed additives, and liquid feedstocks (such a crushing system in front of North America). The system requires more storage bins, transportation, and storage are not as good as crushing. It is also possible to combine the raw materials to make a batch of ingredie (this after the comminution system is very common in Europe), and then the vitamin premix, mineral premix, feed additive and liquid feedstock are batch, stirred together. The post-pulverization system is well suited to handle high oil content (such as fish powder and poultry powder). Such raw materials can also be mixed with cereal raw materials such as oils such as wheat and solve, which can alleviate the inclusion of oil-containing raw materials when crushing. The post-pulverization system is provided with a buffer storage, which is sent from the buffer position to the mixer, and then formed. This system is a ted by most aquatic feed processing pla because the feed plant uses a variety of by-products as a feed raw material, which is easily uniform as the raw material is uniform, respectively, and is easily uniform. After stirring, the batch ingredie were stirred, stirred, stirred, and then sent to the workshop silicon for granulation or extrusion. When processed shrimp feed, the pulverized raw materials from the workshop silisto are subject to a double or three-layer pre-regulator, and the purpose is to extend the material retention time, and steam before granulation. The steam contains heat and water, heats the temperature rise, reaches the temperature conditions required to make the starch, wheat gluten, the temperature conditions required. There is no suitable time, temperature and moisture, the starch cannot be gear, the gluten cannot be formed. Shrimp is slowly esweet under water, so the shrimp feed should be as stable as possible, and the dissolved disinfection is done for a long time in the water. Figure 2 shows the water stability index of shrimp feed immersion time (Waterstabilty INDEX, abbreviated WSI) (Cheng Zongjia et al, 2002). The longer the feed time of feed, the greater the amount of feed damage. Figure 3 shows the effect of the temperature of the material moisture and the temperature of the machining, the effect of shrimp feed WSI by meat mill (Cheng Zongjia et al, 2002). It will be clear from Figure 3, with a meat grunmat, a shrimp feed, WSI, produced under 100 ¡ã C, 40% moisture conditions, and the highest. By pre-regulator treatment, the granulation is pressed in the granulator, and then passes through a granulation retriever, there are more steam to reach the shrimet surface to enhance the ripening. The final particles were dried to a suitable moisture (less than 10%) by drying / cooler to safely store. Most fish feed is a floating feed or slow dosing, which is made of extrusion techniques. The extrusion process is also the same as granulation, and the material of the silo is in the extruder, and the suitable machining conditions are created in a suitable machine, screw and shear lock, and form a fish feed. The material is extruded into a certain shape and cut into a certain size, and is dried to the drying / cooler drying. The biggest benefits that the farm can be improved from the extrusion process is to improve feed efficiency. Squeezing processed fish feed, its persistence and water stability are better than steam granulation or cold extruded products. Squeeze processing is also advantageous to add a lot of fat in some formulations, such as high energy squid and squid feed. For such fish, high-energy feed can save diet proteins and improve feed efficiency. The feed efficiency of young rainbow trout feed can reach 1.0g feed / g weight, the feed efficiency of the entire production cycle is about 1.2G feed / g weight, in the United States, the rainbow trout is usually about 0.75kg. After drying / cooling, the sieve was removed. If you need to coat the grease from the granules, it should be sprayed with heat from the dryer from the dryer. Then, send the particle feed to the scattered bin waiting to be dissatisfactory, or put it into the packaging bag. [NEXTPAGE] 2 Most of the raw materials for the production of aquatic feed are smashed (lower granularity). The purpose of pulverization is to obtain materials suitable for fabricating high quality feed and is most suitable for animal digestion (Martin, 1983). Stevens (1961) poi out that the raw materials are pulverized with the following reasons: pulverization can increase the exposure surface area of the material; make the material easier to digest; when processing; the pulverization can improve the uniformity of the stirring, especially for young animals with small feeding capacity Crushing also helps granulation and extrusion. Making fish shrimp feed, especially shrimp feed, requires raw material comminution, which is made of pellet feed to better water stability, and can enhance animal production performance. Palaniswamy and A1i (1991) were studied, and the raw material particle size was reduced to 500, 420, 300, 250, 210, 50 ¦Ìm (micrometers, the same), and the results showed that the water stability of the obtained particulate feed was preferably 210 ¦Ìm. Indian white shrimp (PENAEUSINDICUS) is the fastest growing speed, the feed conversion rate is the fastest, the feed conversion is the mostOk, the digestibility is also the highest. Obaldo et al. (1998) Put the raw material particles of a shrimp day from 603 ¦Ìm to 586, 52L, 408, 272, 124, 69 ¦Ìm, and found that the feed made of 124 ¦Ìm raw material particles can increase the water stability of the particles, particles. Persistence, starch transcene, and weight loss of shrimp. Popular feed, poor water, will produce a lot of broken, not only waste, but also increase production costs, and pollute the environment. However, the raw material pulverization increases the electricity consumption and the water during the production process, and the powder loss is increased. The hammer pulverizer and roller mill are used to coarse grains, producing 300-1200 ¦Ìm fragmented grains, high efficiency. When using a hammer pulverizer, the screen is easily blocked. When the high-fat raw material such as fish powder and poultry, it is better to be smashed into some cereals. When the pulverizer is machined, a sifter should be added to the pulverized process, and the coarse granules return to the pulverizer further crush, which can stably obtain the required particle size. The ultrafine pulverizer is the most commonly used pulverizer for shrimp feed and fish feed. Ultrafine pulverizer, or air grade grinding, the raw material can be pulverized to 100 ¦Ìm (Sorensonand Phillips, 1994). The ultrafine pulverizer can be used to change the gas flow, feed speed, grinding speed, or simultaneously change these three factors, and pulverize the raw material to various particle size. Figure 4 is a flow chart of a superfine pulverizer. This air grading ultrafine pulverizer has no screen, which avoids the phenomenon of grease blocking screens like a hammer pulverizer, thereby reducing downtime to achieve better quality control. However, the high-fat raw material may also block the crushing chamber of the cutter and ultrafine pulverizer. Table 2 (Chengzongjia et al, 2001) showed the case where the poultry under the lower grain size of the ultrafine pulverizer was reduced. Ultrafine pulverizer treated the particle size drop in feather powder. Fat has a negative impact on the material crush because fat is liquefied during the pulverization process, and the pulverization process is interrupted. Liquid also makes the raw material soft and difficult to crush, and the product particle size is large. Cellulose also has a negative impact on the material. Many factors should be considered when choosing a comminuted device. Power consumption is one of the most important factors. Power consumption can be calculated by the following equation: Power consumption (KWH / TON) u003d ¡Ì3 ¡Á a ¡Á V ¡Á Eff ¡Á PF / (Ton / Hr ¡Á 1000) where KWH / TON u003d Maxim hour per ton: a u003d amp; V u003d volt; EFF u003d efficiency factor; PF u003d power factor; TON / HR u003d Town per hour. As an example, Table 3 lists the power consumption of some poultry and feather powder (Cheng Zongjia et al, 2001) with ultrafine pulverizer. The power consumption of these animal protein powder (70.9-97.7 kWh / TON) was smashed with a roll mill. Heimann (1983) reported that the corn was pulverized with roller mills to a particle size of 432 ¦Ìm and 649 ¦Ìm, and the power consumption was 26.32 and 11.98 kWh / t, respectively.The corn was pulverized to a particle size of 399 ¦Ìm, 548 ¦Ìm, 647 ¦Ìm with a hammer pulverizer, and the power consumption was 31.25, 16.39, 16.26 kWh / ton. Crushing also causes moisture loss. MCellhiney (1980) reported that the corn was pulverized with a hammer pulverizer, and the average moisture lost 1.1% to 1.5%. Remen (1976) Test showed that 15% or more of water was 1.2% in the pneumatic conveying system, and the average moisture of 14% or less water was 0.81%. Wolfe (1982) Treatment of corn with a hammer pulverizer, derived during 4 months, corn fine crush (3.2mm sieve, machinery transport) lost moisture 1.1%, crude crush (4.7mm sieve, machinery transport) lost moisture 1.05% . The dynamic consumption of fine pulverized by ultrafine pulverizer is larger than pulverizing the pulverizer or roller mill. [NextPage] 3 Granulated Feed Processing Industry has a huge change in past 20 years, expansion processing poultry feed and pig feed, and extruded processed fish feeds are generally accepted and a ted. However, shrimp feed production still uses granulation technology, because granulation cost is lower than expansion and squeezing, and shrimp is extracting, and feed manufacturers can find a way to improve particulate water stability, not necessarily use extrusion production. Shrimp feed. The definition of granulation is to compact feed raw materials and intensify the feed raw material (Dominy et al, 1994) with a mechanical processing method combining heat, water and pressure. Thermal and water are present in vapor, and proteins and starch can be softened to degenerate protein, starch. The denatured protein and gelatinous starch can be bonded together to make the feed of granulation more durable and more stable in water. After the raw material is grained, the feed efficiency is improved, and various raw materials are more fused, and the damage loss of the wind is also reduced, and the bulk weight loss can be improved. The granulator consists of a feeder, a modulator, and a granulant chamber. Figure 5 is a granulation flow chart. The feeder delivers the raw material to the modulator and then goes to the granulation chamber. The device can prevent the modulator from retrograde the feeding hopper. The modulator provides thermal and water softening protein and starch, degenerates protein, starch, and reduces anti-nutrient factors such as soy-like anti-suplars, reducing bacteria and molds, improves preparation. Sale of single-layer, double-layer and three-layer modulators. The three-layer modulator has the longest retention time. Typically 90 seconds have a stagnation time to make hot and water through materials. The modulator should use the saturated steam of L-2kg / cm2. The temperature of 90 ¡ã C or higher is usually sufficient to enable the binder. Generally, the material moisture should be 16-18% before reaching the granulation mold. Although moisture can make the material better, the moisture is too high to block the granulation mold caused the downtime, and it costs more calories when dried. Steam modulation usually increases moisture by 2%, and the material moisture is usually 10-12%, and therefore, about 2% moisture can be added in agitation, so that the material reaches the granules of the granules of 16-18% moisture can be made. Quality, Lasting, high-water stable feed. After the granulation can be sprayed, the particulate water split should be dried to 12% to be safely stored. The granulating chamber makes the material into particles, which have two parts: ring mold and pressure roller. There are three steels that can be used to make ring models: Carbon gradeallox, carbon stainless steel, neutral harbon-chromium stainless steel (Neutral Hardenedc HROME Stainless Steel). Production shrimp feed, neutral hardened chromium stainless steel ring model is preferred, because the high chromium content can prevent the corrosion of the feed to the ring mold, thereby preventing the feed yield from decrease, and increases the quality of the particles (Dominy et al, 1994). Secondly, it is a carbon stainless steel ring mold that has a higher friction coefficient due to carbon-cement processing, which can push the material at a faster speed, but its corrosion resistance does not have a neutral hardened chromium stainless steel ring mold. The carbon-type alloy ring mold is rarely used in the production of shrimp, as its corrosion resistance is poor, and the ring mode is short. Shrimp feed usually requires 2.0-2.5 mm diameter particles, and the thickness of the ring mold is usually in the range of 45-50 mm. In addition to the ring mold, the granulating chamber has 2 or 3 pressure rollers. The pressure roll should be reasonably designed, and there should be sufficient support forces to withstand load pressure, prevent debris from entering the bearing, and has a large propulsion (powder) force (Fairfield, 1994). There are three types of pressure roll surfaces to select: a hard aircraft roll surface, a score pressure roller surface, and a tooth roll surface. The tooth roll surface is most common in shrimp feed production. Its end can be an opening or a closed, increasing the number of tooth grooves reduces the width of the tooth to enhance the propulsion to prevent loopback. The pressure roll controls the efficiency of the material through the ring mode, and therefore also controls the feed yield, and also controls the surface of the ring mold. The material between the pressure roller and the ring mold should be as thin as possible, and the pressure roller is adjusted every day. In order to achieve maximum production efficiency, the new ring mold must be applied with a new pressure roller. [NextPage] 4 Drying / Cooling Feed granulation, drying or cooling after extrusion. There are two types of dryers: vertical and horizontal. The horizontal dryer is suitable for drying / cooling high moisture water feed. After granulation or extrusion, the particulate feed is evenly paved on the moving conveyor belt of the dryer at a certain thickness. The dryer can be used in natural gas, and the natural gas fuel dryer is more efficient than steam. The hot air temperature ranges from 100 to 200 ¡ã C, and the feed can stay at this temperature for 4-6 minutes, which should be lowered to prevent Metarad response (non-enzyme brown) from affecting the nutritional value of the feed. When the hot air passes through the particles, the moisture is absorbed and the temperature is lowered, and the part reaches the purpose of drying / cooling. Some exhaust gases discharged in the dryer can be recirculated back to the dryer to reduce heating costs. The city has a single layer, two and three layered horizontal dryers. Two-layer dryer is more common in the aquatic feed processing industry. The particles move along the upper belt along the upper layer conveyor (the particle thickness is about L0CM), and then falls to the lower conveyor belt (the particle thickness is about 15-20 cm), only thisA transfer process can lose about 3 percentage of moisture, then the particles discharge from the outlet of the dryer.After drying, the particles should be cooled, usually selected a dry / cooling machine to complete this job.A two-layer dryer is used as an example, and the lower belt can extend to the dryer, and the granules are cooled by the particles at room temperature (Fairfield, 1994).This can promote animal oil absorption if it is desired to spray the grease, which is usually hot spray, i.e., after the drying is duined.After drying cooling, the feed should be stored in a dry ventilation chamber to maintain quality.Suitable drying / cooling makes feeds easier to store, and is therefore an important part of feed processing.(1, American Soybean Association Beijing Office; 2, United States Ai Daiso University Hagerman fishing experimental station; 3, US Ocean Institute Aquatic Feed and Nutrition; 4, United States Kansas State University Cereal Science and Technology

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