Comprehensive processing and utilization of chicken bones

LIMA Fish Feed Machine,Chicken Feed Machine

my country is the country in the world, and in 2003, my country has a total of approximately 83 billion yuan. The total number of stocks has a total of 241.5 billion poultry, and the total output of broilers in my country is 6.6 million. The machining of chicken is caused by a large number of chicken skeletons. 90% of the protein in the bone is collagen, bone rubber and chondroitin (acidic adhesive polysaccharides), which have enhanced subcutaneous cell metabolism, delaying aging, osteoprotein is a relatively full price soluble protein, high biological value, nutritional value Higher. At prnt, my country’s processing and utilization of animal bones is still relatively backward. Every year, a large number of animal bones are wasted or processed into a product with a very low value, such as processing into a feed additive. As my country’s poultry processing production increased year by year, how to process the use of an bones into a very important topic. This paper reviews the overview of the nutritional value of chicken bone and processing. 1 The nutritional feature of the eggs contains 10.35% protein, 13.44% fat, 3.95% calcium, 2.04% phosphorus, while the chickens contain a variety of trace eleme necessary for human body. The proportion of calcium phosphorus in the bone is moderately beneficial to the human body absorption. The main nutrie are moisture, protein, fat and minerals contain a certain amount of protein, relatively low fat content, belonging to a high nutritious low thermal energy. 1.1 Rich mineral bone powder contains rich minerals, the most important is hydroxyapatite crystals [CA10 (PO4) 6 (OH) 2] and amorphous phosphate calcium (CahPO4) also adsoriled Ca2 + in its surface. Mg2 +, Na +, CL-, HCO3-, F- and citrate plasma. More importantly, the rich calcium and phosphorus in bone powder are the constant mineral eleme necessary for human body, and the calcium phosphorus ratio in the bone mud is 2: 1, which is the best proportion of calcium and phosphorus in the human body. Milk is better. 1.2 Premium protein chicken dry products contain 12.0% -35.0% protein, which is the highest content of collagen that forms collagen fibers. The amino acids constituting proteins in bone powder were analyzed, and 17 kinds of amino acids were found to be included in bone powder, including the amino acid necessary for 8 people. Among them, glycine, glutamic acid, alanine, and aspartic acid are much more. By comparing the essential amino acids in other foods, the protein in the bone powder is a high quality protein. 1.3 Reasonable fatty acid composition osteoplasm contains reasonable fatty acid ratio, the main saturated fatty acids are palmitic acid and stearic acid, unsaturated fatty acids with oleic acid and linoleic acid. The proportion of saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids is close to 1: 1, and the composition ratio of the human intake fatty acid is recommended [7]. Further, the bone powder also contains a trace amount of cardnate (14: 0), cardamist acid (14: 1), palmoleic acid (16: 1), linolenic acid (18: 3), and other unsaturated fatty acids. 1.4 Other nutrient osteotic powder also contains phospholipids, phosphorus, and cartilages that are considered to be strengthened under subcutaneous cell metabolism in osteotomy.Sui, bone rubber. In addition, there is a variety of vitamins such as: Va, Vd, Vb1, VB2, VB12, and the like. 2 Chicken Processing Technology 2.1 The traditional extraction process of chicken bone preparation of chicken bone gelatin is: ¹Ç ¡ú Pre-treatment ¡ú Pope ¡ú Crush ¡ú Adding water soaked ¡ú adjust pH ¡ú gel ¡ú post treatment ¡ú Chicken bone gelatin. The traditional raised process is a step-by-step heating process, and the first glue process is taken from 55 ¡ã C. It will be given a 5-10 ¡ã C in the future until 100 ¡ã C, the entire glue needs to be carried out. 5-8 ti , time consuming about 40h. This kind of sphinar is time consuming, the energy consumption is too energy, the resulting gel is too thin, the volume is large, and the energy consumption is large. At the same time, concentration itself is also a heat-fever process, and the time is extended, which will promote secondary hydrolysis and reduce the quality of gelatin. Long-term heating also produces color reactions, making gelatin yellowing. Liu Xiaoling et al. (2004) a ts improved extraction process: pophibs ¡ú smash ¡ú add H2O2 solution soaking increase ¡ú adjust pH ¡ú gel ¡ú post-treatment ¡ú chicken bones. The results showed that 0.2% H2O2 were added to the pyspene, the extraction rate of gelatin was nearly 3 ti , while the color of gelatin was shallowed, but the viscosity of gelatin was lowered to gel strength. The improved extraction process greatly reduces gelatin production time and reduces energy consumption. The determination results of the amino acid and the viscous average molecular mass indicate that since H2O2 is destroyed to the aromatic amino acid, the cleavage of the collagen chain is accelerated, and thus the extraction rate of gelatin is improved, and the molecular mass of the gelatin is slightly lowered. Infrared spectroscopy, the gelatin extracted from the method does not have a helical structure. [NextPage] Liu Xiaoling also studied the process of producing medicinal medicines with chicken leg bone, eating chicken bone gelatin showed that the gelatin process is: commodity chicken leg bone ¡ú pretreatment ¡ú pysteride ¡ú bruises ¡ú gel ¡ú filter ¡ú centrifuge ¡ú concentration ¡ú Dry ¡ú finished gelatin. The best extraction conditions are at a temperature of 70 ¡ã C, pH 5, and the camptic process conditions are: Ca (OH) 2 mass fraction of 0.1%, temperature 10 ¡ã C, and french time 6d. The fly-proof treatment can remove miscellaneous protein, which increases the purity of gelatin, and the viscosity and freezing force have risen. Gelasia made of chicken bone processing can be widely used in various industrial sectors such as food, medicine, photograph, and cosmetics, and have a wide range of uses. 2.2 Production of Chicken Bone Powder and Branin Powder Feeding 2.2.1 Production of Chicken Bone Powder Production of Chicken Powder Includes Crude Process, Steam Process, Sunling Process. The process technology of crude bone powder is a small piece of bone pressure, placed in a pot to boil 3-8 hours to remove fat in the bone. When the crude bone powder is processed, the bone oil is subjected to the extraction of bone oil, except for the processed bone powder, some bone oil and bone hydraulic fluid can be extracted. It is bone powder after pulling the cooked bone line, dried and pulverized. The process of steaming bone powder is to extract bone oil and bone glue, separation of bone glue, bone oil and bone, dry bone oil, and pulverize the bone powder. After the bone powder is processed, after the bone bone is scraped, soaked in the raw floral water 20-30d, remove all the oil, remove the dry, then powdeoken osteoplasma. In order to improve the adequate absorption and utilization of the human body to the nutrient ingredie of bone powder, the bone powder can be modified or treated before being applied to food processing, and the method of consumption can be improved. The main method is mainly used is an acid solution, an alkali solution, an enzymatic solution, and a microbial fermentation method. Bone powder has a nutritious, enhanced appetite, calcium phosphoric absorption, and is widely used in food and feed. Wang Hongxin et al. (2005) reported that the enzymatic hydrolysis technique is used to treat enzyme, the resulting product is rich in calcium, phosphorus, amino acids, peptides, proteins, etc., and the nutrie are more vulnerable to be absorbed by the human body, which can be used to make chicken, Make chicken with full chicken flavor. 2.2.2 Production of Bone Powder Feed Wu Lili et al, using a chicken leg bone as a raw material, using steam pressurization, high-temperature sterilization method processing can obtain a good melet powder feed for livestock and poultry, the meat powder containing crude protein 30%, calcium 13%, effective phosphorus 6%, the proportion of essential amino acids in crude protein in crude protein, peanuts, intestinal feather powder and leather protein powder. The lysine content made of chicken leg bone is high, reaching 2.74%, indicating that the test can be used in place of the fish powder after proper supplementation of the tama; in the corn-soybean pig, the feed can be used in the maize All instead of calcium hydrogen phosphate, reduce feeding costs, and the effective phosphorus in meat powder is abundant, and 215% of the egg chicken feed can increase the egg rate of 10%. 2.3 Chicken bone mud processing beam (2000) using 0.1MPa, heat insulation 25min high pressure steaming chicken bone, add water, fragrant material, yellow wine, vinegar, salt, to achieve the purpose of softening chicken, the steamed chicken bone is broken, thick Grinding and fine grinding of chicken bones with high calcium content. Gao Xiang (2002) and other rarch chicken bone mud processing technology is: frozen chicken skeleton ¡ú thaw ¡ú elective ¡ú high temperature softening ¡ú smash ¡ú grinding ¡ú chicken bone mud. The custer nutrient made in this process is rich in nutrie. In addition to a large amount of calcium, it also contains an indispensable phospholipid, phosphorin, can moisturize the skin, supplemented with blood, prevent aging, and bone gelatin and energy. Promotes the liver function of methionine and vitamin A, B1, B2, B3 and other nutrie. Use chicken bones to make chicken bone mud spicy sauce, chicken bone paste, chicken mud pills and chicken mud pine, etc. After adding a chicken mud, the nutrition of chili sauce has increased significantly, rich in mixed proteins, phospholipids and calcium, phosphorus and other minerals, and greatly improve the flavor and taste of traditional chili sauce, which is better to achieve The purpose of seasoning and nutrition. After making the chicken bone into a chicken bone paste, it is made entirely with the meat attached to the bone, and the protein, calcium and bone marrow can be obtained in the bone, and the phospholipid, chondroitin, rich amino acid and vitamin A, B1 of the human body are obtained. , The trace eleme necessary for a variety of human bodies such as B2, the protein content in the chicken paste exceeds L1%, adding the bone paste 5%, 10% amount to the calcium sausage made from the sausage, the calcium content Add 48 mg / 100g, 95mg / 100g, add 10% of the bone paste to the surfaceIn the article, the content of the calcium phosphorus content of the series can be increased by 2-3 ti . Therefore, foods adding bone paste are ideal for elderly, children, and calcium deficiency populations. Add a chicken mud in the meatballs, which will greatly increase the nutritional value of meatballs, so that the product is rich in calcium eleme that are easily absorbed by the human body. 2.4 Preparation of Chicken Bone Extract The process of preparing chicken bone extracts mainly has normal pressure hydroly, high pressure cooking method, alkali solution, acid solution and protease solution. Preparation of chicken extracts by alkali solutions Emphased Natural L-amino acids resolve reactive reaction to form D-amino acids, so there is less application; acid hydrolysis bone is hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, citric acid, acetic acid and malic acid Even the good Army and the like were compared with acetic acid, phosphoric acid, citric acid and lactic acid hydrolyzed bone powder, and the percentage of four acid transformed bone calcium was 19.3%, 28.8%, 30.7% and 12.2%, and optimized with citric acid. Lin Jinji et al. (2000), with egg bone as raw materials, the best process conditions for extracting its ingredie as a seasoning feedstock: the skeleton is 3: 1, citric acid is a weight of 1.0%, hydrolysis temperature 121 ¡ã C, the hydrolysis time is 2 h. Xianglui, etc. (2003), after washing the skeleton, after purge, water, water, pretreatment, addition of constant temperature hydrolysis, and chemical solution, study, the optimum conditions of papain protease water, the optimal conditions of 5 %, Temperature 70 ¡ã C, pH 6.0, enzyme amount of 4000 u / g, hydrolysis time 6 h, with this hydrolyzate as a base, by temperature-controlled reactions, and add some spiceoms, various flavor can be made into various flavor. 3 Conclusions and Prospects, ¹Ç ¹Ç ¹ÇA potentially high nutritious low thermal energy. At prnt, the processing and utilization of the eggs is not high, mainly through roughing production of animal feed, and the study of egg processing and utilization has been prepared by chicken bones, chicken bone powder, chicken mud, chicken extract, th products It can be used as a seasoning, food and feed to add auxiliary food and feed processing. Demand for natural seasoning during the process. Carry out the study of egg processing and utilization, it can reasonably use the by-products generated in the development of chicken industry, turned waste into treasures, and has a good development prospect.

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