Discussion of feed massage process and equipment

LIMA Fish Feed Machine,Chicken Feed Machine

Temperature is an important part of the feed granulation and puffing process. Since the self-feed granulation machine and feed expansion machine, the feed tuning process and equipment have been constantly developing, especially in recent 20 years of domestic and foreign aquaculture. The rapid development, due to the special demand for water-resistant water resistance, the development of the feed massage process and the equipment of the equipment, there has been a lot of flowers. In order to better understand the effects of feed massage on the quality of finished products, it is now discussed for the process and equipment of feed mass.
1 Feed Templates
Feed Templates is one of the feed maturation processes, and the biotezer is converted to a powder having a certain degree of acquaintance, and the feed is good for feed and equipment. Feed granulation and puffed molding.
1. The purpose of feed massage
1.1.1 facilitates feed granulation
to make feed easy to form, reduce the powder of granulation.
1.1.2 Improve the digestive absorption rate of the feed
The digestive absorption rate of components such as proteins and starch can increase by 10% to 12%.
1.1.3 Increasing the stability of the aquatic particles in water
increases the gelation of the starch, so that the stability of the particulate feed in water is 30 min, up to 3 to 6 h, and its stability is mainly Depending on the formulation and conditioning properties. Of course, the granulation process also helps to increase the stability in water.
1.1.4 Improve the yield of granulator, reduce power consumption
to increase the yield of granulator to 25% to 50%.
1.1.5 Reduction of the wear of the mold and pressure roller
The life of the compactment and the pressure roller extension is 30% to 50%.
1.1.6 Destruction and killing harmful factors reached 20% to 60%.
1.1.7 2 to 3 liquid components can be added during the conditioning process.
Since the tuning process is the heat and mass (moisture) steam treatment of the feed, the high temperature steam will produce different degrees of loss. How can it be able to reduce the loss of thermal components, but also make the feed to obtain a good conditioning effect, so far, it has not yet been solved, indicating the variety and adding process of feed massage process and thermosensitive components. Many topics need to be improved in common research. The following analysis discussion is performed on the feed tuning process equipment for reference.
1. Mechanism and conditioning process of feed massage
Feed tetamine is the process of feed water heat treatment, and the feed tuning is actually actually gas phase (steam), liquid phase (fine water dispersed water droplets) heat, quality Solid phase (powdered materials) pass heat and quality process. Steam is both a heat transfer body during the feed massage, and a moisture absorbing body. Moreover, the feed is constantly changing during the conditioning process, and the heat transfer and mass in the vapor are inwardlyThe process of metastasis.
Temperature of the powder material is a process of forming a boundary layer around the surface of the particulate material from the surface of the powder. The heat transfer and mass transfer speed of the conditioner process determines the temperature gradient, speed gradient, humidity gradient, material properties (density, particle size, water content) of the steam and powder particulate material and the interface layer, material properties (density, particle size, water content).
When the low-temperature and low-moisture-containing solid phase powder, the steam pressure is reduced from 200 to 400 kPa to normal pressure, and the steam temperature is reduced from 142.9 to 158 ¡ã C to 100 ¡ã C, which Just start the tuning of raw materials. The key to material material is the quality of steam (refers to the water content of the steam and the value), since vapor is divided into wet steam, saturated steam (dry steam), superheated steam (see Figure 1). The difference between the triple is that the enthalpy value (kJ / kg) is different from temperature. The temperature of wet vapor is low, the wet vapor and saturated steam (dry steam) are the same (100 ¡ã C), but the saturated vapor enthalpy is higher than the wet steam. The value of overheated steam is higher than the top. Wet steam is a mixture of water (finely dispersed water droplets) and steam.Èç¹û¶ÔÆä¼ÌÐø¼ÓÈÈÁ¿£¬ìÊÖµÔö¼Ó£¬ÕôÆûζȲ¢²»Éý¸ß£¬¸ÃÈÈÄܹ©¸øϸ΢·ÖÉ¢µÄË®µÎÆû»¯µÄÈÈÄÜ£¨Æû»¯Ç±ÈÈ£©£¬¹©ÈÈÄÜÔ½¶à£¬ìÊÖµÔ½¸ß£¬ÕôÆûº¬Ë®Á¿Ô½µÍ£¬ The higher the steam content. The degree of steam is the saturation (dryness) of steam, such as the saturation (dryness) x u003d 0.8 of the steam indicates that 80% is steam, 20% is a finely scattered water droplet. The steam content at normal pressure reached 100%, that is, at a saturation temperature of 100 ¡ã C, steam is a steam that does not contain water, which is saturated steam. When the saturation steam continues to heat, the enthalpy and temperature of saturated steam continue to increase, the steam is superheated steam, which is a steam quality required by the granulation. If the vapor pressure increases, the temperature of the water is increased, and the temperature of the wet steam, saturated steam, and superheated steam is formed, and the temperature of the superheated steam is also improved accordingly (see Figure 1 curve).
High temperature superheated steam, high enthalpy value, high heat, no water, overheating steam enters the injection of the injection force from 200 ~ 400 kPa to normal pressure, the temperature is reduced from 142.9 to 158 ¡ã C to 100 ¡ã C, converted to saturate Steam or wet steam. At the same time, steam release heat, saturated vapor saturation is gradually decreased, and the water content in saturated steam is gradually increased, and heat is continuously released, but the steam temperature remains 100 ¡ã C. At this time, the thermal steam and cold solid phase powder meet, since there is both a temperature gradient (temperature difference) between thermostat and powder material, a humidity gradient (poor humidity). Therefore, both heat steam and cold-solid powder generate both heat transfer, and the passage of mass (moisture), the passage between heat steam and the solid phase powder, is heat and mass transfer. driving force. The conditioning process is the heat of the steam, and the process of heat transfer and mass transfer from the outer surface of the powdered material. Moreover, heat between thermal steam and powdery materialsAnd the total amount of the total amount in the transfer process is balanced (the air temperature rises in the regulator and the heat dissipated by the massage barrel). During the heat transfer and mass transfer, the heat of steam is released, and the temperature of the powdered material is rising to the temperature (granulation 80 to 85 ¡ã C, the puffed 95 ¡ã C), the saturated steam is continuously lowered, saturated steam A gradually increased water content. When the plasma material regular mass regulation temperature is 80 ~ 85 ¡ã C and the saturation (dryness) x u003d 0.6 to 0.9, under this condition, the powder material can be substantially 11 ¡ã C, Its moisture increases by 1%. After absorbing the powdered material or the addition of moisture, the granulation is reached, and the amount of water required (17% to 18%, and 28% to 30%) is puffed. In order to ensure that the granulation is required to be low, it is reasonable to use overheated steam, such as using wet steam to dispense too much moisture, affect the granulation. Pulling should be used with a large amount of saturation (dryness) having a large amount of saturation (dryness), which allows the powdered particle material to obtain more water, but also obtain a high temperature, in line with the material. Duffing requirements. In structure, granulation of the tunmer should be warm and warm, and the puffed strontium can be free of heat insulation.
Target and requirements of tuning: The feed powder is soften with powder particulate material under water and thermal co-action during conditioning. Mematic softening requirements are to make the particulate material center to be softened to optimal, and it is the objectives and requirements of tuning.
The water vapor in the vapor in the spring condition is higher than the surface of the surface of the powder particulate material surface. In this respect, the surface of the powdered particles constantly absorbs moisture in the water vapor (see Figure 2, from 1 ~ 4 The process of absorbing water in material). At this time, the surface of the powder material is higher than the internal moisture of the material (i.e., the humidity gradient). To this end, the material surface moisture and the internal moisture have a moisture pressure difference, and follow the regions of the region of moisture to moisture to water to water. Therefore, the powdered particulate material is not only surface adsorption moisture, but also toward the internal.
Powder particulate material is significantly increasing the speed gradient of the steam flow in the plate strike and flipping of the striupter. Because the speed gradient of different parts of the material particles is different, the temperature gradient and humidity gradient of the material particles are increased. Therefore, accelerate the heat transfer and mass transfer process between steam and material and the inside of the material and the inside of the material. At the same time, the plate has a certain extrusion of the material particles, increasing water into the internal transfer of the particles. The rate of moisture transfer is related to the size of the particles, the particle density, the particle state, and the mass transfer speed of the particles. Such as high tunnel speed, the powder granules are fierce, and the speed gradient is increased, and the steam and material have a uniform contact. Large hits, steam and powdery particles are sufficient, and the water is transferred to the internal transfer of the particles, and the amount of moisture can also be increased. The moisture of the moisture is diffused, and the powder particle material increases moisture. The increased moisture is a physicochemical binding water and mechanical binding water (free water is also called free water), as a materialWhen the massage water is 18%, the main body of the moisture is increased by the powder particles in a physical chemical binding water (penetration binding water). In addition, some steam water droplets adsorb mechanical binding water (free water, free water) formed on the surface of the powdered particles. The original chemical binding water (crystalline water) of powdered particles is increased by physical chemical binding water, which is a balanced moisture of powder particles at this temperature, relative humidity (see Figure 3). This balance water varies with temperature and relative humidity. The balance of the powder material decreases with the increase in temperature, and the relative humidity increases. Since the physical chemical binding water of the material and the appropriate amount of mechanical binding water (free water, free water 2% to 3%), it is advantageous to obtain a good granulation effect. Under the common action of high temperature and moisture in the strontium, the powder particles are tempered, amyloidization, protein degeneration, and harmful factors to be destroyed and inactivated, and the powdered particulate material is softer. Preferred granulation effect. It can be said that the feed massage is a very critical process of the feed granulation and the puff process. It is difficult to obtain high yield, high quality, low energy granulation and puffing effect.

Due to the different water content of the material, the granulation is generally at 17% to 18%, while the puffed requirements are 28% ~ 30 %. The conditioning temperature is typically at 80 to 90 ¡ã C, in general, the saturation of the steam in the strontium is 65% to 95%. At this time, the material should also have a corresponding balance moisture (a balanced moisture required under the conditioning conditions, otherwise it is not possible to achieve the amount of moisture of the water), the granulation, and puffed the moisture of the water after the injection of water must be 16% and 22% to 25%, while mechanical binding water (free water, free water) is 2% to 3% and 3% to 5%. To this end, the two have different water content requirements, obviously different vapor requirements, and the process parameters of the two temperament are different, in order to ensure that the material after the regulation has different water increases. Steam required for granulation is superheated steam, but there is less steam. The amount of vapor required for puffing is much more vapor with the granulation to ensure the high temperature and high moisture of the puffed material (due to the short steam conditioning time, the steam regulation is not enough, it is difficult to achieve the balance under this condition) The moisture is required to add moisture in the mixed section). The above analysis has not considered the utilization of steam, and the steam consumption of the granulation process is from 3.5% to 4% (including other heating and loss of 5%).
2 Mematic Process and Equipment Development Process
The awareness of water and thermal action in the feed massage process and equipment is gradually deepened. Therefore, the tuning process and equipment have been developing, and it is a wide form of form, although water and heat treatment on granulation and puffing, it has received a relatively wide consensus, so that the feed water and heat treatment process have been unprecedentedly strengthened.And the tuning effect is significantly improved. But so far, the feed quasiology is very small, mostly from macro and concept. This is difficult to analyze the improvement of the tuning effect.
Memorial process and equipment are mostly in the 1950s and 1960s, it is a combination of feedback and tuning and tempered. In the late 1970s, it is separated from the 1970s to the feeding and tuning, and I have appeared in the 80-90s. Level regulation, equilateral horizontal binoculance, binocular pattern and kettle tape, high pressure tuning, etc., have made different regulating effects. From the surface, various tuning processes and equipment can basically meet the granulation or puffing requirements, in fact different regulatory process and equipment, the process parameters of the tuning, the process parameters of the tuning, the tunnel speed, the tunition and stront timing, etc.) have different For this, the tuning maturity effect also has a large difference, and the different tuning maturity effects should be adapted to different material premium requirements. It is now discussed as follows.
2.1 Tempering process and equipment for feed and tempered coaxial combination
The feedstock of granulator in the 1950s and 1960s is a continuous spiral, and the injection is blade, due to feed According to the particle size, the amount of feed is changed, the speed is required to speed up, but in order to ensure the tuning strip, the tunmer speed must be constant, for this, the two cannot be taken into account. Thus, the injection molding process of the feed and conditioned coaxial combination is poor. To this end, by the late 1960s to the tuning and strioid process of feed and tempered coaxial combination of the early 1970s, it is replaced by the process equipment that is resembled and tempered. 2.2 Differential processes and equipment separated by feed and tempered
Since people recognize the disadvantage of the feed and tuning coaxial combination, the feed and spring-tempered are started separately. At this time, the length of the mass strip is generally short, and the sum of the length of the pressing chamber and the main drive is generally within 2,000 mm. The diameter of the mass strip is generally within 300 ~ 400mm, the rotational speed is about 200R / min, and the material is within 15 to 30s of the retaining regulator time. Since the feed and conditioning function has been divided into labor, the striupter is a blade. For this reason, the material injection molding effect is improved, and the gelation of the starch after granulation can reach 25%, so the starch of the starch after regulation. The degree can also be within 15% to 20%, and a variety of liquids can be added. Since the gelation of the starch is not high, the particle water resistance is poor, so the tuning process can only be used in poultry feed production, and cannot be used for aquatic feed with high water resistance.
2.3 Other diameter horizontally double-tube strioid process and equipment
The combination of two single-cylinders, only intermediateless walls, the structure can be flipped with each other, and some blade rotates reverse rotation, extended The material is residence time in the machine, enhances the adjustment strength, the residence time is up to 1 min, the germline of the starch can reach 20%, the mass transfer speed is 100 ~ 200R / min, within or the tunator is a paddle leaf. A variety of liquids can be added, which can be used in poultry feed production, which can also be used for fish feed for water resistance.
2.4Second, the third-level tuning process and equipment
Due to the special requirements of water-resistant water resistance, in order to enhance the tuning of the plaster, the length of the second, three-stage tuning process and equipment, the massage force length of 3 000 ~ 4 000mm. The mass diameter is still around 300 ~ 400mm, and the striupter is a paddle, the blade is arranged in a variety of forms. 1 The front halflet is 45 ¡ã and the axial angle of the axis, and the latter halflet is parallel to the axis. 2 Adjacent two blades and the axial angle of the axis each 75 ¡ã. The speed of the speed is 100 ~ 200r / min at high speed is 300r / min. Since the length of the mass strip is increased, the high-speed paddle enhances the needlemental strength. Some tunnels also replace the long cylinders to reduce heat intangible loss, the material is greatly increased by 1 to 2 minutes in the machine, so that the adjustment effect has been improved, and the germline of starch after conditioning is 25 after the regression. % Or so, a variety of liquids can be added, which is basically in line with aquatic feed for water-resistant requirements.

4.5 Horizontal binocular differential striupment process and equipment

striped stripper is binocarry-striped striped stripper, high tube blade speed At 1 to 2 times the speed of the large tube blade, it is from 200 to 300r / min, and the blade is all reversed, and the material is pushed to the import, the barrel is 420 to 480 mm. The large tube blade speed is about 1 R / min. There are 3 to 4 groups at the import of the blade to push the material to the exit direction, and the central paddle and the axis are parallel, only the flipping effect, no promotion function, the outlet is 2 ~ 3 The group pushed the material to the import direction, but the direction of the blade can be adjusted according to the properties of the material, and the material propulsion is mainly determined by the imported blade propulsion to the outlet paddle, and adjust the angle of the blade to adjust the propulsion speed Quality time. The large cylinder diameter is 520 ~ 560mm. Large, the drum is intersecting in the diameter, the intersection is close to the length of the pellet blades, the shaped end and the shades of the blade rods are the same. Therefore, the model is usually reached 2 to 3 min, up to 20 min, the tension is better, and the starch deprived after conditioning is generally 30%, the highest paste can reach 40% ~ 50%. The above, and can add a variety of liquids, binochet differential tuning process and equipment to adapt to the premium of various aquatic feed, but the cost is high, and the tension is mainly used for the puffed tuning, which has begun. Used for tuning of granulation.
2.6 High-speed tuning, low-speed insulation homogeneous upper and lower binjobs
The upper and lower bin tube striped strippers similar to the horizontal binocular striped strontium structure in 2003-2004 have been admitted, its performance In principle, high-speed tuning and insulation homogenesis is separated, and the function division is clear. To this end, the adjustment effect will be better than the horizontal binoculars.
The upper tube is a high-speed tuning, and since the conditioning effect depends to certainly depend on the heat transfer and mass transfer speed, heat transfer and mass transfer, the interior and the interface of the steam and powdery particles.Factors of the temperature gradient, velocity gradient, humidity gradient, material properties (density, particle size, water content). High-speed tuning, increases the powder and steam, the surface of the powder and the internal temperature gradient, speed gradient, and humidity gradient, thereby increasing the tuning effect. Its diameter is 400 ~ 480 mm, and the speed is 450 ~ 500R / min.
The drum is an insulation homogeneity. Because it is necessary to meet the adjustment requirements, it is necessary to have a more uniformity of material injection to ensure the excellent conditioning performance. Therefore, the tuition and strontium of the binjet striupter of the upper and lower high-speed tuning strontings will be better than the horizontal binocular differential stripper. Its diameter is between 500 and 560 mm speed at 50 ~ 100R / min. The amount of the conditioner has a liquid addition of more than 10%.
2.7 kettle tuning process and equipment
There are many types of kettle tensile, with better kettle regulating temperatures to be about 20 min, which can be added to a variety of liquids, and the liquid addition is up to reach. 10% to 25%, the number of can be adjusted to meet the requirements of different yields. The tunnel is discharged from the planetary screw conveyor, the clearance spiral conveyor, the kettle strumper diameter 1 600 ~ 2 700 mm.
2.8 High-pressure tuning and tested process and equipment
The striups mentioned above are at normal pressure, achieving the same effect, relative to high pressure regulating time, especially difficult particle materials, should High pressure regulation. The conditioning temperature can reach more than 100 ¡ã C, the conditioning time can be longer, but the conditioner is a pressurized container whose pressure is 20 to 80 kPa, which makes the water and heat in the vapor to enter the inside of the material, and The conditioning effect is more uniform. Previous high pressure regulating temperatures are particularly suitable for raw material preparation treatment of large particles, such as the regulating treatment of the material. In the future, the high-pressure striupter can be used for the conditioning treatment of the powder feed, which can make the tetamine effect superior to normal pressure regulation.
3 Main factors affecting the conditioning of the conditioner
Tempermatism is the indispensable process of granulation or puffing, and there is no good massage system, there is no excellent granulation or puffing effect, and affects the striupter. There are many factors in the regulating effect, depending on the following three factors.
3.1 Material Performance
3.1.1 Material Properties
Since the type of feed is much species, the properties of the material are different, and the effect of the tension is also different. According to the components of the body, the material properties are divided into protein type, starch type, fibrous, fat, thermal sensitivity, etc., the work parameters should be different when tuning temperament. Protein feed protein has hydrophilic, and the moisture should not increase much during conditioning, otherwise it is easy to block the pressure film hole. For this reason, the overheated steam is good because protein feed massage is heat ratio. Wet is more important. Starch-type feed starch requires high temperature, high humid mass regulating conditions, so low-voltage superheated steam or in the mixerSome water is suitable. Fiber feed fibers holding water resistance and adhesiveness, for this moisture should not be too high, generally 13% to 14%, and temperatures are controlled around 55 to 60 ¡ã C. If the temperature is too high, the pressed particles are prone to cracks, using a lower overheated steam or add a small amount of moisture in the mixer to reduce the temperature of the suppression.
3.1.4 Fat-type feed fat feed moisture should not be too high, for this purpose, high superheated steam is beneficial to fat type granulation. Heat-sensitive feed thermal feed strongest temperance is low, and the temperature is controlled below 60 ¡ã C, and the moisture should not be high, so, lower overheating steam can be used or add a small amount of moisture in the mixer. It is effective to reduce the temperature.
3.1.2 Particle size and homogeneity of the material
Due to many types of feed, the particle size and homogeneity of the same type of powdery material are also large, which is difficult to support the conditioner operation. And put forward a high requirement. Because the tuning requirements make the center of each particle softened, such as small particle tething has reached the requirements, the large particle tuning has not met the requirements. If the particle size phase difference is, the larger the injection, the greater the gap. The latest research conclusion abroad: “The effect of”” the particle size of the powder particles on the regulation effect “”is proposed

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