Effect of machining process on feed nutritional value and livestock production performance

LIMA Fish Feed Machine,Chicken Feed Machine

1 Feed pulverized particle size and uniformity of 1.1 Crushing particle size Cabrera et al. (1994) It has improved; reduced corn, sorghum’s pulverization particle size cannot improve the production performance of 4 ~ 14 days of 7 ~ 28 days old meat chickens. Healy et al (1994) reported that for corn, hard embryos sorghum and soft embryo sorghum, the highest weight of the 7-day-old chicken 0 ~ 7D increased with the highest-end conversion rate of 700,500 and 300 ¦Ìm; HEALY (1994) believes that if the sorghum is checked, it is similar to the nutritional value of the meat chicken. When the Kansas State University discovered that the feed particle size was reduced from 1000 ¦Ìm to 500 ¦Ìm, and the weight of the meat chicken with complex diet was increased, and the broiler of the eating composition was simple to digest. HEALY et al. (1994) reported that the grain size of the weaning piglet was reduced by 900 ¦Ìm to 500 ¦Ìm, and the cost of diet machining is increased, which is less than the compensation generated by the feed conversion. When the growth pig diet is changed from 509 ~ 1026¦Ìm, there is no significant effect on the daily gain of pigs, but with the decrease in the particle size, the feed conversion increases the best particle size of 509 ~ 645¦Ìm (Zanotto et al, 1996). When the fertilizer pig dietary grain is 400 to 1200 ¦Ìm, the particle size is reduced by 100 ¦Ìm, and the feed conversion increases by 1.3% (Wondra et al, 1995a). When the corn pulverized particle size is reduced from 1200 ¦Ìm to 400 ¦Ìm, the amount of digestive sows and digestive energy can feed the digestible energy, digestible and digestibility of digestion and nitrogen and the increase in the piglets of piglets, and the dry matter and nitrogen in the dung The content is reduced by 21% and 31% (Wondra et al, 1995c, d), respectively. Kim (1995) also found that when the composition of the corn particle size from 1000 ¦Ìm from 1000 ¦Ìm, the piggy weight increased significantly, and the pig’s daily weight of the pigs formed, which was less affected by corn crushing particle size. The suitable particle size of 0 to 14 days and 14 to 35d feed pigs was 300 ¦Ìm and 500 ¦Ìm (HealTy et al., 1994); growth fatty pigs and sows were 500 to 600 ¦Ìm and 400 to 600 ¦Ìm (Wondra et al, 1995c, d). Ying et al. (1998a, b) reported that when the corn in the breastfeeding, the digestibility and organic matter of starch in the rumen and the whole digestion increased significantly, and the milk production increased significantly. Reis et al (1998) also found that the milk fat rate decreased significantly when the cow was finely pulverized. YU et al (1995) showed that the milf diet was finely pulverized, and the feed conversion can be significantly improved. 1.2 Crushing uniformity roller pulverizer is pulverized by the hammer pulverizerHigh uniformity (MCellhiney, 1983). The conversion rate (Luce et al. 1996) and growth growth rate (PEET et al, 1997) were higher than the hammer pulverizer. When the maize is uniform, the production performance of fatty pigs is not affected, the digestible rate of diet, nitrogen and total digestion is increased, and the amount of dry matter is reduced in the dry matter of the manure; the corn is pulverized with roller crusher, and is more hammer The crusher can improve the nutrient digestion rate in the diet, reducing the amount of dry matter in the dung and 12% of the discharge amount of nitrogen (Wondra et al, 1995. 2 Dietary mix uniformity McCoy et al. (1994), when feeding the meat chicken When feeding full price, the mixing uniformity of the diet is not affected by its growth performance, and the feed conversion rate increases with the mixing uniformity, which is linearly improved; and feeds 80% NRC standard for meat chicken. NRC standard non-full price When grain, its growth performance increases with the mixing uniformity of the diet (the variation coefficient is reduced from 40.5% to 12.1%) and reported. TRAYLOR, etc. (1994), when the mixed uniformity of the piglet diet is reduced from 106.5% to 12.3%. At the time, the daily gain and feed conversion rate increased by 32.5% and 19.2%, respectively; when the mixing uniformity of the fatty pig diet was reduced from 53.8% to 14.8%, the production performance was not significantly improved. Therefore, the diet mixed uniformity The influence of young animals and child feed is large. Therefore, the consolidation coefficient of mixed uniformity of the grain chicken and piglet diet is 12%; the mixed coefficient of the fertilizer pigment mixed uniform variation is 15%. 3 Hot Process 3.1 Granulation Since the particles have many advantages, there is a wide range of meat chickens, turkeys and weaned piglets. The daily gains and feed conversion rates of frescoed granules in broilers are better than pow hard. Recently, the impact of granulation quality and granulation and fine powder in the diet is concerned about the production of meat chickens. Wilson et al. (1998c) reported, 3 ~ 6 weeks old meat chicken seized full pellets, production The performance is higher than the food granules + fine powder diet. The sensitivity of the fine powder content of the turkey and the amount of fine powder content in the pellets is higher than the meat chicken. Proudfoot and Hulan (1982) found that the fine powder content in turkey When 0 increased to 60%, its production performance decreased. Wang Xiangyang (1995) Granten on the soybean powder, so that the trypsin inhibitory factor was reduced from 27.36 to 14.30 mg / g. John- Ston, etc. (1998a, b) Fertile pig and sow feeding corn or sorghum powder, resulting in the feed conversion of particles, the total apparent digestibility rate and the nitrogen digestion rate are significantly higher than the powder, and there is no significant difference. TRAYLOR, etc. (1996) reported In the 5-day-aging, the pigment of the pigs and the feed conversion rate and feed conversion are increased, and the powder is increased by 25% and 36%, and the particle diameter (2 to 12 mm) does not affect the growth performance of the pig; at 0 ~ 29 Pig daily weight and feedingThe high conversion rate is the highest; the growth rate of pigs in 29 days ~ fertilizer, is not affected by the feed morphology, but the feed conversion rate of the particulate material is better than the powder. Stark et al (1994) also reported that when the piglet is sieved, the feed conversion is increased by 15% or 30% of the particles of 15% or 30% fine powder; fatty pigs are prepared in the food, and the pellets The proportion of fine powder is increased from 0 to 60%, and the feed conversion decreases, and there is no significant difference in the digestibility of daily gain and nitrogen and its thickness. Shi Qinghe (1997) has a total mixed dietary granulation process of young sheep, daily gain, and feed intake and feed conversion increased by 161.92%, 88.74% and 28.01%; nutrient rumor stomach disappearance rate and full digestion There is no significant difference in the digestive rate of the Dow. Although the granulation is advantageous, it is said to be yellow alcohol, vitamin K, ascorbic acid, carotene, vitamin E, and sulphicin to granulation (Gadient, 1994). VAN DER POEL (1997) reported that 75 ¡ã C and 95 ¡ã C granulation temperature can reduce the activity of ¦Â-glucanase by 40% and 70%, more than 110 ¡ã C, ¦Â-glucanase and cellulase All of the activity is lost. Israelson et al. (1995) reported that when the granulation temperature was 79 ¡ã C, the phytase activity was reduced by 45.8%, and when 80 ¡ã C decreased by 87.5%, the activity loss was large. 3.2 Expansion and crosstalk with extrusion, expansion and extrusion puffed have a short period of time, high temperature, high pressure. Jin Zhengyu (1998) believes that the puffed material has better maritability and higher utilization of pellets. CHAE and HAN (1998) pointed out that puffing processing is more effective than granulation in terms of controlling Salmonella. [NextPage] Zanella et al. (1998) reported that puffed all fat soybeans were added to meat chicken diet, and the weight gain and feed conversion rate of meat chickens can be added to large soybean meal or baking. GARCIA, etc. 91998) expands the barley, significantly increase the weight gain of the 14-day-aging meat chicken; and the abundance of barley expansion can significantly improve the weight of the meat chicken. Wilson et al (1998a) reported that the meat chicken weighting and feed conversion conditions were the best corn expansion processing conditions, and the temperature of the temperature was 71 ¡ã C, which was 12 kWh / t; and the sorghum corresponding value was 79 ¡ã C and 9 kWh / t. When making a meat chicken pellet, the normal conditioning is changed to an expander tension, and the metabolic energy content and the digestibility of fat and starch are improved (Peisker, 1993), and the feed conversion rate is improved (Wilson et al., 1998B) . Rollins (1996) reported that the steam energy tuning, enhanced steam regulation and expander regulation, increased the weight gain of meat chickens by 1%, 1% and 5%, and the feed conversion rate is improved by 4%. 3% and 3%. Van Zuilichem et al (1996) reported that all fat soybeans often affect the lysine contentIt is obviously reduced the content of trypsin inhibitory factor and the protein discrete index. CAO et al. (1998B) When the cone pressure is increased from 0 to 56kg / cm2, the daily gain of weaning piglets is increased in curve with feed intake. Richarclson et al. (1998) found that puffed soybeans have no significant improvement in their dry matter digestibility, while puffed cottonseeds can improve their dry matter digestibility. O’DOHERTY and CALLAN (1998) are similar to the basic diet of pigs with raw peas. TRAYLOR (1997) In the fertilizer pig diet based on corn, sorghum or wheat powder, the digestibility of nutrients can be improved due to expansion processing, but in the wheat-based diet, nutrient digestibility Do not improve due to expansion; the feeding crude fiber content is higher than corn, the sorghum is lower than corn, and the degree of nutritional value after expansion is greater than corn. Medel et al (1998) also found that corn in the early weaned piglet pig diet, improved its production performance and less than barley. PIAO et al. (1997) Saurer et al. (1996) reported that the granulation or expansion + granulation of the piglets, all the growth of the pig, 3% and the digestibility of the feed conversion, and the digestibility of the protein were 3% and 6 %. The pigs were in the 8 ~ 12, 10-35 and 35 ~ 110kg weight stages, and the expansion pellets were extracted, and the feed conversion was superior to the precipitation of ordinary mass-striped particles (Teisker, 1995). CHAE and HAN (1998) have studied the effects of powder, ordinary pellets, puffed materials, puffed particles and expansive particles, and the effects of pig production properties and nutrient digestion rates, in terms of improving weight gain and feed conversion rate, piglets The effect is better than the expansion pellet material with the growth pig, and the effect of growing the fatty pig is superior to the puffed particles; while the effect of the piglets eat ordinary particles is inferior to the pellet or puffed particles. Durable or expansion processing, which can improve the tendency of energy dissipation rates from powder, but no effect on protein digestibility; when expansion or puffed is combined with granulation, there is no effect on the influence of digestibility; The diet is expanded or expanded, and the improvement effect of powder and particulate material on pig production performance seems to increase with the reduction in pig age. That is, with the age of pigs, granules are processed for diet, enough to achieve its production performance. The effect of expansion and puffing on the production of pigs is also related to the nature of diet. When expansion and puffed fibrous diet (Sauer et al, 1996), the improvement of pig production properties is greater than the treatment of highly digestible or corn – soybean diet (CHAE et al, 1997a). Sommer et al. (1994)Report, when 120, 130 and 150 ¡ã C expanded rapeseed meal, the coarse protein solubility reduced 40% from no processing to 17%, 15% and 13%, respectively, and the corresponding rumen degradation rate dropped from 65% to 44 respectively. %, 35% and 38%; rapeseed meal non-degradation protein residue has increased in small intestines. Expansion can increase the content of the cereal and soybeans by 4 times, making soybean meal, rapeseed meal, and corn flour flour flour flour, and the increase in protein protein is small (Elstner, 1996). GOELEMA and VAN DER POEL (1996) expanded under 120 ~ 150 ¡ã C, which reduces the degradation rate of proteins in most feed raw materials and protein mixes, but the digestibility of proteins in the unexplained residue is not affected. And even improved. When the bulls fed 5 to 20 weeks of milk, the standard milk production was added to 6.4% (Peisker, 1995). COELHO (1996) pointed out that expansion and puffed processing have a great effect on vitamin stability in feed. CHAE et al. (1997C) reported that the growth of pig feeding was added to a vitamin diet, and the growth rate and the feed conversion were lower than the vitamin group. 3.3 Dry Rolling, steam rolling and steam tablet dry rolling, vapor rolling and steam tablets are widely used in dairy production. DAUN et al. (1998) feeding the corn for dairy or steam tablets, and the result of the production performance after the milk has no significant difference, while the maize that fed the vapor tablets after childbirth, it is more feeding and pulverized Corn, there is a tendency to increase milk production. ARIZONA’s research shows that the corn or sorghum of the vapor tablet can be laminated by dry rolling and steam rolling of milk cows, 8% of milk protein production and raising economic benefits 0.48 US dollars / D, where sorghum The improvement effect is greater than corn (Santos et al, 1997). When feeding the sorghum or corn for dairy cattle, the two production properties are similar (Santos et al, 1997). When the cow is 0.30kg / l, the milk is 0.30kg / L, the milk volume is more than 0.25 kg / L of the tissue, and the steam roller corn or coarse pulverized corn is increased by 8% (YU et al, 1995). Corn (YU et al, 1995) and sorghum (Santos et al, 1994a, b) were 0.26 to 0.32 and 0.30 to 0.36 kg / L, respectively, respectively. CROCKER et al. (1998) feeding dairy cattle, feeding different proportional tablets, corn and dry crushing corn, and increased ratio, increased digestibility of starch, C18: 2 fatty acid proportion in cream increased. 3.4 Microwave processing on feed nutritional value and livestock production performance Garcia et al. (1998) reported that the barley microwave processing in 1 to 42 days of aged meat chicken, can increase the increase of 14 days before the age of 14 days ago Heavy. WANg et al. (1998) on the microwave processing of all-fat CANola rapeseed in the dairy diet, significantly reduced the rumen degradation rate of arginine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine and phenylalanine, and increased The digestibility of the above amino acid and proline in the small intestine. 4 Conclusion In summary, the feed is appropriately processed, and the nutritional value of the feed can be improved varying degrees to increase the production performance of livestock and poultry, potentially reduce the pollution of livestock excrement on the environment. Although hot processing has many advantages, it has increased processing cost, reducing the stability of vitamins and the activity of enzymes, and should be emphasized for the application. In the future, in addition to further study the mixing uniformity of the diet, the mass preventive method before granulation (ordinary steam or expander regulation) and the quality of the particulate material on the nutritional value of the feed nutrition and the production of livestock and poultry are also needed to be in addition to corn. Outside the sorghum, other grain and protein feed is suitable for pulverizing particle size, and accurate and simple and practical measurement of the mixed uniformity of the diet, affecting the factors of the granulation and its control method, the inflation and the infrastructure of different raw materials and diet and the diet. Its application of appropriate conditions such as the application of unconventional feed resources (such as feather keratin), suitable conditions such as microwave processing feed.

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