Processing and testing of xyllase in the feed

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Wipylase has the largest share in world enzyme sales (Bedford and Schulze, 1998), which makes high viscosity wheat can be added to poultry diet as a feed raw material and will not adversely effect. Perhaps due to its economic importance, the report on the stability of xyllase in scientific literature is much more reported than related beta;-glucanase stability. 2QE China Feed Industry Information Network – Based on Feed, Serving Animal Husbandry

Wood polyglychase can be produced by a variety of fungi and bacterial production, and its enzyme activity is different, this is not Surprisingly, because there is a specific adaptation environment in each organism. The review of Bedford and Schulze (1998) showed that the optimum temperature of the xyllase produced by many fungi and bacteria was 30 to 105 degrees Celsius, and the most suitable pH was 2.0 to 10. Pickford (1992) compares the stability of three commercial enzyme preparations in the case of no enzyme-enzyme-enzyme-based type of enzyme. The results show that at a granulation temperature of 80 degrees Celsius, the activity of the first enzyme preparation retains 85%, the activity of the second enzyme preparation retains 55%, and the activity of the third enzyme preparation is only 33%. At 95 degrees Celsius granulation temperature, the activity of these three enzyme preparations is all lost. Extrusion of extrusion in short-term high temperatures also causes a large loss of the activity of these three enzyme preparations, and the difference in enzymatic loss is similar to those described above. 2QE China Feed Industry Information Network – Biped Feed, Serving Animal Husbandry

PettersSon and Rasmussen (1997) confirmed by thermomyces, humicola (HUMICOLA) and Pecusa (Humicola) Trichoderma) The isolated xylanase is different in thermal stability. The xylanase isolated from Trichoderma is obviously inactivated at 75 degrees Celsius regulation; and the xylanase isolated from the high temperature mold and the preserved melamine can be retained 80% at 85 degrees Celsius. The above activity. The xylanase which is isolated from high temperature molds, even if more than 70% activity can be retained even at 95 degrees Celsius regulating temperatures. The variation between nine xylanase preparations was observed in Gibson (1995), and 7 of which were commercially available in the test. The results show that after 90 degrees Celsius processing is processed, one of the enzyme preparations retains 90% of enzyme activities, and the additional seven reserved enzyme activities are less than 10%. The report is not enough to indicate how many variations are due to the source of enzymes, and how much is due to the stabilization treatment of enzymes. PEREZ-VENDRELL (199A) Determined 8 commercial enzyme preparations (including applications or bags) at 65 to 70 degrees Celsius, 75 to 80 degrees Celsius and 85 to 90 degrees Celsius Treatment. The results show that even at the lowest temperatures, the enzyme activities of most products are stillLess loss of 30%; while the enzyme activity can lose 90% at the highest temperature regulation temperature. Esteve-Garcia et al., As found to beta;-glucanse research, the enzyme activity of fine particulate xylanase formulations is not lost at close to the granulation temperature of nearly 80 degrees Celsius. live. 2Q China feed industry information network – based on feed, service livestock

Recommended a method of protection against heat treatment damage. The most basic enzyme-activity method is PettersSon and Rasmussen (1997) proposed in its study, that is, from the heat resistance of heat-resistant enzymes from the heat resistant microorganism. Another enzyme-activity method is to spray the enzyme preparation on its feed particles after granulation, but this requires additional addition to certain processing equipment and processing steps (Perez-Vendrell et al, 1999b). 2Q China Feed Industry Information Network – Based on Feed, Service Animal Husbandry

Stabilization treatment can also be stabilized, thereby increasing its thermal stability, and can be prior to granulation It is added to the feed without making its enzyme activity significantly. The stabilization method is the method mentioned above. The deactivation of the enzyme is caused by the steam used in the tuning. Thus, stabilization treatment of the enzyme preparation is mainly by adsorbing the enzyme preparation to a carrier or smearing a hydrophobic substrate on the enzyme preparation, and the enzyme preparation is from vapor disruption (Cowan, 1996). Pickford (1992) provides an example, stabilizing treatment enhances the enzyme activity retained from 48% after 75 degrees Celsius, so that the enzyme activity retained after 95 degrees Celsius is increased from 12% to 34%. Obviously, even if stabilized enzymes also have a thermally stable limit. STEEN (1999) It is recommended that if the feed is processed at a temperature above 90 degrees Celsius, even if the enzyme that is stabilized, it should be added to the feed after processing. 2Q China Feed Industry Information Network – Based on Feed, Serving Animal Husbandry

In vitro enzyme activity is a valuable means of determining the loss of enzymes. The test results show that even with relatively low temperatures, the enzyme activity will result in a significant loss. However, in vitro detection is only one of the means. Obviously, under the treatment and digestive conditions of the feed, the activity of the enzyme preparation in the buffer only provides very limited enzyme activity information at the optimal pH. In fact, most researchers (Vukic-vranjes et al, 1994; Petterson and Rasmussen, 1997; Perez-Vendrell et al, 1999; etc.) have recognized the importance of interaction between enzymes and feeds, and measured with feed Enzyme activity. Determination of the viscosity of feed extraction (Spring et al., 1996; Bedford et al, 1997) Provides an indicator for the effect of evaluating the enzyme activity before the feed is feeding. Preston et al. (1999) confirmed the presence of this effect. The results show that even in its feed final product is completely lost, the supplementase preparation can make poultry production performance significantly improved. 2QE China Feed Industry Information Network – Based on Feed, Serving Animal Husbandry

The effect of feed processing to the enzyme effect must be determined by poultry production performance and Heat treatment effect. The deactivation of enzymes is not always directly reflected by the difference in poultry production performance (Bedford et al., 1997; Perez-Vendrell et al, 1999; Silversides and Bedford, 1999). Bedford et al. (1997) found that as the machining temperature increased from 65 degrees Celsius to 105 degrees Celsius, the percentage of enzymes changed linearly, while the production of broilers (body weight gain, weight loss) is 81 to 83 degrees Celsius The processing temperature reaches the best. Silversides and Bedford (1999) also confirmed this effect of heat treatment, as shown in Figure 15-1. As the processing temperature increases, the activity of the enzyme is lowered (R2 u003d 0.97), and the weight of the broiler is a secondary curve change (R2 u003d 0.84). The results of the consumption ratio have also produced similar results (R2 u003d 0.98). The maximum weight and the lowest consumption increase ratio is obtained at 80 to 85 degrees Celsius. There are two possibilities that there are two possibilities: one may be that the enzyme is almost completed in the mass strip, thereby causing the analysis value after the granulation; the other may be the analysis method used. Enzyme activity cannot be measured effectively. 2QE China Feed Industry Information Network – Based on Feed, Service Animal Husbandry

The enzyme data obtained by the high-temperature mold of the protective layer is obtained from the crepe or decana of the unbained protective layer. The enzyme data does not seem to be the same type, which may be because the former does not have an enzyme and a feed matrix. In this case, the enzyme is easier to be extracted, and the correlation between the recovered enzyme activities and poultry production performance is also confirmed (Cowan and Rasmussen, 1993; Petterson and Rasmussen, 1997; Andersen and Dalboge, 1999). These mutual contradictory results show that in the case where the characteristics of the enzyme are unknown, there is no unique method to determine the production performance of the poultry according to the analysis value of the feed sample. 2Q China Feed Industry Information Network – Based on Feed, Serving Animal Husbandry

Increases the production performance of poultry, indicating the risk of only dependent on the determination of enzymes, perhaps It is not like the contradiction like it. Heating In addition to affecting the enzyme, it also affects many other aspects (Pickford, 1992). Moderate heating can promote gelation of starch, accelerate the crushing of the cell wall, improve the utilization of nutrients, thereby improving the production performance of poultry. This is also one of the basic reasons for granulation treatment of feed. Higher processing temperatures also increase the solubility of non-amyluman polysaccharides, thereby increasing the viscosity of the poultry coliform content, reducing the production performance of poultry, which in fact, increases the need for exogenous enzymes. Silversides and Bedford (1999) have shown that the viscosity of the chicken colon contents increases significantly with the increase in machining temperature in the absence of exogenous xyllase in wheat. When the xylanase is added to the diet, even at a higher processing temperature, the viscosity of the chicken colon contents can be lowered, and at the highest temperature, the viscosity actually reduces the amount. At higher machining temperatures, the enzyme can still play a large role, which may be due to the enzyme at this time. Enzymes may be active during or during processing, thereby reducing viscosity measurements in vivo. Higher processing temperatures reduce the production performance of poultry, which is not only due to the increase in the viscosity of the intestinal content, but also due to the effect of exogenous enzymes, but also due to the inactivation of vitamins and other enzymes, and starch and protein digestibility Decline. With the commercialization of the enzyme preparation of heat resistance or stabilization, the damage to vitamins and other nutrients will also limit the processing temperature used. 2Q China Feed Industry Information Network – Based on Feed, Serving Animal Husbandry

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[123 The activity of the enzyme in the solution may be lowered at temperatures below 60 degrees Celsius. The enzyme is in the mixed feed to be protected by the feed raw material, and most of them may be very stable at a slightly low temperature. However, at a machining temperature of up to 95 degrees Celsius, the enzyme activity will take serious losses. In order to reduce the adverse effects of heat treatment, several methods have been used or recommended, including protective enzymes from steam, using heat-resistant enzymes or addition of liquid enzymes after processing. Feed enzymes may have some activity prior to animal food feed, so the total losses of in vitro may not always mean total loss of revenue. This seems to be partially dependent on the enzyme and its analysis method. In some cases, in vitro analysis is a misleading; in other cases, the content of the enzyme is significantly related to the production of animals. Due to vitamins, proteins and starch to heat treatment may be more sensitive than exogenous feed enzymes, increase processing temperature will increase the damage to these nutrients, so general processing temperatures cannot be improved. Further development of heat-resistant enzymes and the role of feed processes or prior to feeding, which may be the prospects of the feed industry to obtain the maximum income by adding enzymes.

2Q China Feed Industry Information Network – Based on Feed,Service animal husbandry

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